Do you want to know what factors affecting PC monitor Responsiveness? Therefore, this article is for you. Pay attention so you don’t miss anything. Since their introduction in the 1970s, flat screens have advanced considerably. They are currently more than just the laptop screen you see. The primary output devices on your computer, your smartphone, and your television. They are also crucial to the overall use of your computer.

Your computer’s display is one of its most important parts. You won’t be able to play your games, watch movies, or surf the internet if it isn’t responsive. Before purchasing a monitor, it is crucial to understand what factors affecting PC monitor responsiveness.

What impact does that have on the responsiveness of your PC monitor, though? The entire performance of your computer may suffer if your monitor is slow or unresponsive.

Factors Affecting PC Monitor Responsiveness

Can monitor affect computer performance? In terms of the laptop’s performance, the monitor is crucial. Although the laptop’s screen is the most crucial component for viewing data, there are various aspects of the monitor that will impact how well it functions. Monitor response time measures how quickly a color shift occurs.

Typically, this is represented in milliseconds (ms), which is the amount of time it takes for a signal to transition from black to white to black again. Grey to grey GtG, on the other hand, as well as occasionally black to white, is also available. The many elements affecting a computer monitor’s responsiveness are as follows:

1. Refresh Rate

The response time is what gives a screen its pleasing, quick-moving appearance to the end user. It can be separated into two categories: fixed screens and 144 Hz screens with variable refresh rates.

Constant Refresh Rate

144 Hz gaming monitor that is the best Most LCD monitors operate at a refresh rate of 60hz when used at their native resolution. Just what does that imply? With a 16.66ms pause between each frame, this translates to a maximum display rate of 60 individual data frames per second. This value can be changed to some extent, but it must be pre-selected because a typical monitor cannot change its refresh rate while in use.

A small number of LCDs, though, can operate at 144Hz or even 120Hz refresh rates while maintaining their original resolutions. It shouldn’t come as a surprise that these monitors can display twice as much information with a 120Hz refresh rate, generating up to 120 different frames per second with an 8.33ms gap between frames.

Changing Refresh Rate

Refresh rate and frame rate are as tightly tied to each other as a screen and the rest of the network. You must maintain a high refresh rate to maximize the benefits of your frame rate. Some users employ V-Sync to stop the frame rate from surpassing the refresh rate. In other words, this is done to guarantee that the Graphics Card provides new settings to a display only when the display is ready to start its next refresh cycle.

What happens as a result of the GPU maintaining the frames in this manner is as follows:

A delay that is intrinsic also occurs in relation to the overall input delay. The penalty gets less severe as the refresh rate rises.

Even if the frame rate is lower than the refresh rate of the monitor, there can still be some stuttering now and then. This occurs because the GPU is not prepared to send the frame when the screen is ready to move on to the next one after finishing drawing the previous frame.

In this case, the GPU transmits the initial frame to the monitor (instead of sending a new one). This causes a stutter or a redraw of that frame on the monitor.

To reduce stuttering and latency as much as possible, many players disable V-Sync. However, when the refresh rate and frame rate are out of sync, problems arise. Additionally, this occurs pretty frequently. In most cases, monitors are refreshed from top to bottom. In this instance, the previous frame is still visible on the monitor’s bottom half while the new frame is only shown on the top half of the screen.

A tear is an occurrence that is noticeable and distracting. Because of the tearing, some users might use V-Sync. NVIDIA, however, came up with a fix. G-SYNC is a different option.

2. Delay In Transmission

One of the key elements impacting responsiveness is input lag (Delay Transmission). The amount of time it takes for a frame to appear on the screen after the graphics card sends it to the monitor is known as input lag and is typically measured in milliseconds. While the signal latency is negligible, a low input lag makes using a mouse or other input device to interact with the screen feel faster than a 144 Hz display.

Delay Transmission Typical Causes

Different models require different levels of signal processing. Signal delay can also occur occasionally as a result. High-end displays occasionally use internal scalars to process resolutions that are not their original resolution. Even when scaling is not required, the signal may occasionally need to pass through a scalar. A delay could come from this.


The monitor’s native display is being used.

Many of the signal processing is bypassed by a special code that some manufacturers include in their PC monitors.

A “gaming preset,” a “immediate,” or a “through” mode may be available in some PC displays and can be accessed via the OLED (OCD).

A photodiode and an oscilloscope are two pieces of specialized equipment needed to measure the signal delay accurately. Instead of calculating the whole latency, it is helpful to calculate just the signal delay. In addition, SMTT (Small Monitor Test Tool) is a tool that may be used to compare the input lag to the desired monitor. Users can also gauge the lag by using a stopwatch. Measurement can be aided by such techniques.

These kinds of techniques can assist in quantifying input lag and providing a picture of it.

In terms of when values are altered, there is a clear lag. Pixel transitions have an impact on the outcome of such procedures as well (the response time). When utilized on some websites, the pixel response, which affects “Visual latency” rather than “felt latency,” is occasionally referred to by users as “Input lag.

“Regarding response time and pure signal delay, keep in mind the following:

The monitor’s ‘look’ is mostly impacted by the response time.

The monitor’s ‘feel’ of responsiveness is influenced by the signal delay.

We must concentrate on the first and how to make it better to improve the display and make the user feel “snappy” when using an input device.

3. Backlight With LightBoost And Strobe

Although an LCD monitor’s backlight can be modulated to sample frames like a CRT, even though an LCD and a CRT use different sampling techniques, doing so can reduce the perceived blur. The user sees frames on the LCD that are randomly “displayed” and “not displayed” by the strobe backlights.
Strobe Backlights have advantages.

They reduce the apparent motion blur.

Strobe backlights are used to mask many aspects of the Pixel shifting process, including the Overdrive artifacts.

The ‘Motion-Compensated Frame Interpolation’ (MCFI) technique used by Sony’s ‘Motionflow’ is particularly well-liked by users. It uses the generation of intermediary frames, which are placed between actual frames, to raise the refresh rate overall. This MCFI technology is used with a strobe backlight in Sony’s “Motionflow XR” for a flawless display.

Another design is the “Motionflow Impulse,” which just makes use of a strobe backlight. Samsung, which employs a different approach called “Clear Motion Rate” (CMR), is not far behind the opposition. CMR mixes a strobe backlight on LCDs and flashes pixels on OLEDs with a variety of extra movement upgrades.

Another excellent illustration is Panasonic’s use of the strobe technology they call “Backlight Scanning” (BLS) in certain of their TV models.

LightBoost By NVIDIA

Specifically for PC users, this is something. With their 3D Vision 2 stereoscopic system, Nvidia has developed a low-latent strobe backlight option for computer users. An essential component of 3D Vision, the shutter glasses include left and right lenses that alternately open and close so that each eye may view a separate frame (resulting in a 3D picture).

The Nvidia LightBoost-compatible displays can momentarily flash on their LED backlights at a visible light between every frame to view each image of data and information. This “on-phase” only lasts a few milliseconds (if not less), and its peak brightness is higher than the monitor’s typical “100% brightness.”

The Off phase continues for the balance of the frame duration, or until a new frame needs to be displayed and the subsequent transient brightness pulse takes place. Because the backlight itself serves as a shutter with this technology, the shutter glasses can be opened for longer periods and allow in more light.

Positive Aspects

The monitor is sampling in this situation more like a CRT than an LCD.

Motion blur is hardly noticeable at all.

The output becomes more fluid, and 3D viewing is safe for your PC and monitor.

Negative Aspects

If the frame rate drops even a little bit below what is necessary to match the refresh rate, smoothness quickly degrades.

The OSD control of the image is turned off since it is only intended for 3D viewing environments (with active shutter glasses), not straight 2D viewing, and image quality may suffer in some circumstances if you look in 2D.

4. Calculating Motion Blur

The Technique Of Static Photography

There is a useful tiny tool called “PixPerAn” (Pixel Persistence Analyzer). It’s used to evaluate how responsive a pixel is. The image below displays the 120Hz LCD Samsung S27A750D being used to take a picture with PixPerAn. Response time is by default set to “Faster.” The backlight can accurately depict the pixel response behavior at any moment because it is always on due to being lit up.

A little number of overdrive artifacts can be visible as a “woven” trail behind the original image. The photographs that were captured when we switched to the “frame sequential” strobe lighting mode are now shown below. The strobe backlight is shown in the first image as being off, and in the second image as being on and quickly pulsating to a brightness that is greater than what is feasible with “Frame Sequential” deactivated.

Experimental Photography Technique

It is undoubtedly possible to create a picture that accurately represents what the eye perceives in terms of motion blur and pixel responsiveness issues using this strategy. We can faithfully reproduce what our eyes see when watching movement on the display by moving the camera at a steady speed that matches the rate of action on the screen.

The photographs below show UFOs that are moving 960 pixels per second from left to right and were taken using the “UFO Motion Test” to check for ghosting. The test’s middle row, which has a medium cyan background, was used. This technique is beneficial because it makes it possible to accurately analyze perceived blur and pixel response behavior. The experiment utilized one monitor. A summary can be seen below.

Rack 1

The Samsung S27A750D monitor serves as the “reference” and is always displayed first in each row of images. With three different working modes for the backlight, it boasts a refresh rate of 120Hz. This monitor is seen in the top image of the first row with a reaction time setting of “Faster” and a 60Hz refresh rate. It is DC-regulated because the brightness is set to “100” in this instance.

There is no observable overshoot, and the pixel responsiveness is rapid enough for good 60Hz performance. The chase camera accurately captures the accurate eye movement that caused the UFO image’s significant blurring in this instance.

The identical monitor is seen in the following image in this row, but with the brightness set to 50. Here, the ‘fragmented trailing’ is evident, with the UFO seeming to be broken up into three separate repetitions.

The Dell U3415W can’t consistently deliver pixel transitions that are quick enough for a 60Hz performance, as can be seen in the third image. This explains why in addition to the eye-movement-related blur (like on the reference screen) there is also some additional training.

The Numbers-Based Methodology

As was already said, the UFO Motion test provides a clear visual representation of some of the ideas that influence how responsive a PC monitor is. However, these tests are also useful in attempting to quantify the distinctions between them.

The “Moving Picture Response Time” is a measurement that may be determined with this test. Or, to put it another way, the “MPRT” accounts for the eye movements connected to lower values that signal less motion blur and represents the full degree or value of perceived motion blur.

MPRT is intended to indicate the refresh rate, and the overall visual responsiveness, and to sample the monitor’s activity. You can employ a variety of pixel transitions with the aid of this test, including those that range from black (grey 0%) to white (grey 100%), with intervals of 25%, 50%, and 75% grey. Although trailing may be seen in such circumstances that go beyond the range of perceived blur due to eye movements, very slow pixel responses can also marginally boost MPRT values.

The graphic in the image below illustrates the MPRTs for various PC monitors. The average Moving Picture Response Times for each of the displays below take into account transitions between each of the test’s various grey levels (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100). Both directions are changed by these adjustments. The following monitors are available in a range of panel types and refresh rates.

The “sample and hold” models are marked with blue bars, whereas the “strobe backlight” models are marked with green bars.

5. PWM Usage

PWM is a technology that some “Sample and Hold” LCDs and OLEDs use to vary the intensity of the backlight. To attain a specific level of brightness, a PWM-controlled light source is rapidly turned on and off rather than using a variable direct current to modify brightness.

PWM Facts

Some persons can experience visual discomfort due to the quick flickering impact of a PWN-controlled light source.

The ‘blur’ of moving elements on a display is affected to some extent by flickering. When the PWM-controlled light source flickers off, the image essentially vanishes for a split second, and when watching moving images, the blur can be seen to be fragmented. PWM phenomenon is the name given to this fragmented blur.

Reaction Period

For the display, refresh rate is crucial. The story is not over, though. You may have noticed in the figure above that there are figuratively empty areas with nothing in between the frames of data that appear on the display. They are only visible on the screen for a very brief period, however, some displays, such as a 60Hz CRT, move from one frame to the next with a 16.66ms pause during which nothing is seen on the screen.

Users who utilize monitors with lower refresh rates can experience “flickering” as a result.

A method known as “sample and hold” is used by the majority of LCDs and several other non-CRT technologies to show their images. This technique keeps a frame visible for the duration of the “gap” between frames 1 and 2 to minimize the appearance of flickering.

The “Pixel Response Time” affects how quickly Frame 2 is drawn on the LCD. This brief explanation of a Pixel’s color-changing time is provided. It doesn’t depend on the color, but it is influenced by the intensity of the shade. A transition from “25 percent grey” to “black,” for instance, will usually take less time than a shift from black to white.

Since not all Pixel transitions occur at the same pace and there is no established unit of transition, the manufacturers typically refer to Pixel reaction times as “grey to grey” values with numbers like 5ms and 2ms.

6. Method Of Sampling

CRTs Versus LCDs

If you’ve used a CRT monitor for a while, you’ll notice that playing games on one had a somewhat different “feel” than on a current LCD. Modern LCDs have higher refresh rates and faster response times, which improve the viewing experience by reducing perceived blur.
A catch, though, exists.

Some things that seemed relatively grainy on an LCD appeared to be sharp during quick motions on a CRT. Why?

The method used to process or sample the frames of information by these two displays holds the key to the solution. While an LCD employs the “sample and hold” method, displaying one frame and letting it remain on the screen until the other frame is ready to go, a CRT utilizes the “impulsive” method, displaying frames one at a time on the screen with nothing present during the “gap durations” between them.

The Procedure

Briefly, the first diagram illustrates the dark period, which is characterized by the absence of any display. The Yellow dot is retained on the screen until the next frame is ready in Diagram 2, however, this is called a “Frame Hold.” Your eyes are fed a constant stream of information on such a display as they monitor the movement.

Throughout the screen refresh, your eyes are in a variety of places. As a result, there is perceived motion blur, which would still exist even if the pixels were switching over incredibly quickly. As you may expect, the Refresh rate also contributes significantly to this process.
The perceived motion blur has decreased, which is largely responsible for the LCDs’ greater smoothness. Much less effort is spent keeping the frames shown on the screen.

Consequently, your eyes are receiving a larger variety of various frames. As a result, you make fewer eye movements. Even in this scenario, though, there is still more eye movement than there would be on a CRT. A CRT displays the information to you for a very brief moment after the “impulse-type approach,” then the screen goes dark (no information). The perceived blur is greatly reduced as a result of your eyes not having to focus as much on tracking motion.


Why Did My Monitor Resolution Change?

The resolution shift is typically attributable to the Baseline display selection and inappropriate or malfunctioning graphics card drivers. Furthermore, the resolution might change as a result of competing for third-party programs.

Why Is PC Monitor Flickering?

The most common cause of screen flickering on Windows computers is display drivers. Remove your present display adapter before starting your computer in safe mode and searching for driver updates. Click and hold (or right-click) Start and choose Device Manager while your computer is running in safe mode.

Can Monitor Settings Affect FPS?

The display is impacted by monitors in terms of FPS count. A monitor with a greater resolution than one with a lower resolution will have a better frame rate when connected to the same CPU. Because of this, you should search for a monitor with greater characteristics if you want one with a superior video display.

What Causes Latency On My Monitor And Why?

Any short-term issues that are causing the lag issue may be fixed by restarting the computer. Close all open programs and games on both monitors, and then restart the computer. Various connectors may display the images in various ways.


Because manufacturers typically provide relatively little information, it is necessary to put in a lot of effort if you want to evaluate a monitor’s responsiveness. We are given specifications with “grey to grey response times,” and these reaction time numbers are important. There are several factors affecting PC monitor responsiveness, as we’ve shown in the article, which is why you need to check beyond the one value provided by the manufacturer.

A significant consideration is the Refresh Rate in addition to Response time. In addition, these two interact, forming a crucial component of how effectively your monitor will manage motion. Another important factor is input lag, which mostly influences how a display “feels” in response.

In light of this, it is essential to do some research and thoroughly analyze each of these factors before you spend your hard-earned money on a monitor. You ought to be on the lookout for specific values that a decent monitor needs. We anticipate that your search is ended now that all of these criteria have been mentioned in this post.

Mehtab Ayyub

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